The full title is Dangan Ronpa: Academy of Hope and High School Students of Despair. However, due to the length, fans all over the world (and on Pixiv) shorten it to Dangan Ronpa. The shortened name has caught on.
A sequel was recently released, called Super Dangan Ronpa 2: Goodbye, High School of Despair. (The tag for it is スーパーダンガンロンパ2).
In order to "graduate", you must kill someone and not get caught.
Super High-School Level Lucky Student
Voiced by: Megumi Ogata
The protagonist. An utterly normal high-school boy who was chosen to attend Hope's Peak Academy by lottery. His most redeeming quality is his positive attitude.
Super High-School Level Idol
Voiced by: Makiko Oomoto
The forefront singer for a national idol group. She has a neat and gentle personality, and was Naegi's classmate in middle school. She considers the other members of the group to be family and treats them well.
Super High-School Level Baseball Player
Voiced by: Takahiro Sakurai
A top-class player in high school that professional teams have an eye on. He displayed an extraordinary amount of baseball skill, even without practicing. However, he hates baseball and dreams of becoming a musician.
Super High-School Level ???
Voiced by: Youko Hikasa
Of all the other students, she is the most mysterious. Even her talent is unknown. She's a girl with quite the cool and unapproachable image. However, during the trials, she gives Naegi advice and points out strange things about the corpses.
Super High School-Level Heir
Voiced by: Akira Ishida
The heir to the global financial cabal, the Togami Conglomerate. He's truly an elite, with absolute confidence in his ability to rule his father's corporation. Many remark that his confidence make him come off as patronizing and arrogant.
Super High-School Level Swimmer
Voiced by: Chiwa Saitou
The captain of both the swimming team and the volleyball team. She is always bright, energetic, and sporty. Doughnuts are her favorite food. Sakura Oogami is her close friend.
Super High-School Level Westler
Voiced by: KUJIRA
The world's strongest high-school girl, she's familiar with every martial art. Despite her outward appearance, she has a prudish and thoughtful personality, and dislikes unnecessary fights. Aoi Asahina is her close friend.
Super High-School Level Hall Monitor
Voiced by: Kousuke Toriumi
The prodigy of the public morals committee at a famous preparatory school. He's very upright. In fact, he puts an extraordinary effort into following the rules, and hates those who don't.
Super High-School Level Gangster
Voiced by: Kazuya Nakai
The second-generation gang leader of a bunch of bikers from Kanto. He's very old fashioned, personality wise, when it comes to things like duty and kindness. Deeply reveres his older brother. By the way, the name of his bike gang is Crazy Diamonds (クレイジーダイアモンド).
Super High-School Level Programmer
Voiced by: Kouki Miyata
The creator of several groundbreaking voice recognition programs and various other systems from a young age. She's also currently involved in artificial intelligence research. This combined with her fragile appearance gained her many fans who're absolutely crazy about her.
Super High-School Level Gambler
Voiced by: Hekiru Shiina
A female high-school student who's a genius at lying. She loves Goth-Loli clothes. Everything about her heritage is wrapped in mystery.
Super High-School Level Doujinshi Artist
Voiced by: Kappei Yamaguchi
One of the most popular and charismatic doujn authors. In the past, his works sold 10,000 copies. The theme of his works are "The Opposite of Human Nature".
Super High-School Level Literary Girl
Voiced by: Miyuki Sawashiro
A young lady who's an overwhelmingly popular new author. Her elaborate romance novels (based on her own delusions) have utterly swept the awards. However, the lady in question has an extreme persecution complex, even going so far to base it upon first appearance.
Super High-School Level Fortune Teller
Voiced by: Masaya Matsukaze
A high-school student who's selling point is that his predictions are right 20% of the time. He had to repeat a year 3 times, so technically he's already an adult. Because he tends toward big, dramatic reactions, he causes many misunderstandings. His defining characteristic is his huge dreadlocks.
Super High-School Level Gal
Voiced by: Megumi Toyoguchi
A charismatic model who decorates the front of adult fashion magazines. She seems like a very "fashion leader" type -- that is, high-class and popular. However, she can be immature and lash out at others too.
Hope's Peak Academy's "Principal"
Voiced by: Nobuyo Oyama
A half-black, half-white bear. In order to agitate his pupils after they kill one another, he puts on a show of the criminal's "punishment". Uses the pronoun "Boku". His trademark laugh is "Upupu~!"
Related Character Tags (※Spoiler Warning)
Makoto Naegi Sayaka Maizono Leon Kuwata Kyouko Kirigiri Byakuya Togami
Aoi Asahina Sakura Oogami Kiyotaka Ishimaru Mondo Oowada Chihiro Fujisaki
Celestia Ludenburg Hifumi Yamada Touko Fukawa Hagakure Yasuhiro Junko Enoshima